Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)
A MFC is a device that directly converts chemical energy into electricity through the catalytic activities of microorganisms. A traditional two-chamber MFC consists of an anode, a cathode, a proton or cation exchange membrane and an electrical circuit. It can be a single-chamber MFC if membrane is removed as demonstrated in following figure.
Microorganisms are used at anode as catalyst to oxidize organic substrate to release protons and electrons as the following reaction: